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Easton Taylor
Easton Taylor

Download Z File: A Guide to Unix Compressed Files



A Z file is compressed UNIX file used to archive files and save space. Like many UNIX compression formats, a Z file can only contain one file. However it can be used to deliver a group of files as long as they have been archived by a multi-file archive tool first. On a UNIX system, this file can be handled using the Compress or Decompress commands. On a Windows system, you can open Z files using WinZip.




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To zip files with ZArchiver, all you have to do is select the files you want, tap the three dots in the upper right corner, then tap "Compress." After that, choose the type of compression and the name you want to give it.


To unzip a file on ZArchiver, select the compressed file, then tap "Extract" to access the files inside. There are different unzipping options, so you can customize this process according to your needs.


By adding support for the OpenStack Swift Keystone v3 identity service, OneDrive Sharing, and Amazon Secure Token Service (STS). FileZilla Pro is making it possible for its users to store and share files with greater versatility and security. Read the full news.


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One feature of Windows NT/2000's (Win2K) C2-compliance is that itimplements object reuse protection. This means that when an applicationallocates file space or virtual memory it is unable to view data thatwas previously stored in the resources Windows NT/2K allocates for it.Windows NT zero-fills memory and zeroes the sectors on disk where a fileis placed before it presents either type of resource to an application.However, object reuse does not dictate that the space that a fileoccupies before it is deleted be zeroed. This is because Windows NT/2Kis designed with the assumption that the operating system controlsaccess to system resources. However, when the operating system is notactive it is possible to use raw disk editors and recovery tools to viewand recover data that the operating system has deallocated. Even whenyou encrypt files with Win2K's Encrypting File System (EFS), a file'soriginal unencrypted file data is left on the disk after a new encryptedversion of the file is created.


The only way to ensure that deleted files, as well as files that youencrypt with EFS, are safe from recovery is to use a secure deleteapplication. Secure delete applications overwrite a deleted file'son-disk data using techniques that are shown to make disk dataunrecoverable, even using recovery technology that can read patterns inmagnetic media that reveal weakly deleted files. SDelete (SecureDelete) is such an application. You can use SDelete both to securelydelete existing files, as well as to securely erase any file data thatexists in the unallocated portions of a disk (including files that youhave already deleted or encrypted). SDelete implements the Departmentof Defense clearing and sanitizing standard DOD 5220.22-M, to give youconfidence that once deleted with SDelete, your file data is goneforever. Note that SDelete securely deletes file data, but not filenames located in free disk space.


SDelete is a command line utility that takes a number of options. Inany given use, it allows you to delete one or more files and/ordirectories, or to cleanse the free space on a logical disk. SDeleteaccepts wild card characters as part of the directory or file specifier.


Securely deleting a file that has no special attributes is relativelystraight-forward: the secure delete program simply overwrites the filewith the secure delete pattern. What is more tricky is securely deletingWindows NT/2K compressed, encrypted and sparse files, and securelycleansing disk free spaces.


Compressed, encrypted and sparse are managed by NTFS in 16-clusterblocks. If a program writes to an existing portion of such a file NTFSallocates new space on the disk to store the new data and after the newdata has been written, deallocates the clusters previously occupied bythe file. NTFS takes this conservative approach for reasons related todata integrity, and in the case of compressed and sparse files, in casea new allocation is larger than what exists (the new compressed data isbigger than the old compressed data). Thus, overwriting such a file willnot succeed in deleting the file's contents from the disk.


To handle these types of files SDelete relies on the defragmentationAPI. Using the defragmentation API, SDelete can determine preciselywhich clusters on a disk are occupied by data belonging to compressed,sparse and encrypted files. Once SDelete knows which clusters containthe file's data, it can open the disk for raw access and overwrite thoseclusters.


Cleaning free space presents another challenge. Since FAT and NTFSprovide no means for an application to directly address free space,SDelete has one of two options. The first is that it can, like it doesfor compressed, sparse and encrypted files, open the disk for raw accessand overwrite the free space. This approach suffers from a big problem:even if SDelete were coded to be fully capable of calculating the freespace portions of NTFS and FAT drives (something that's not trivial), itwould run the risk of collision with active file operations taking placeon the system. For example, say SDelete determines that a cluster isfree, and just at that moment the file system driver (FAT, NTFS) decidesto allocate the cluster for a file that another application ismodifying. The file system driver writes the new data to the cluster,and then SDelete comes along and overwrites the freshly written data:the file's new data is gone. The problem is even worse if the cluster isallocated for file system metadata since SDelete will corrupt the filesystem's on-disk structures.


The second approach, and the one SDelete takes, is to indirectlyoverwrite free space. First, SDelete allocates the largest file itcan. SDelete does this using non-cached file I/O so that the contentsof the NT file system cache will not be thrown out and replaced withuseless data associated with SDelete's space-hogging file. Becausenon-cached file I/O must be sector (512-byte) aligned, there might besome leftover space that isn't allocated for the SDelete file evenwhen SDelete cannot further grow the file. To grab any remaining spaceSDelete next allocates the largest cached file it can. For both ofthese files SDelete performs a secure overwrite, ensuring that all thedisk space that was previously free becomes securely cleansed.


On NTFS drives SDelete's job isn't necessarily through after itallocates and overwrites the two files. SDelete must also fill anyexisting free portions of the NTFS MFT (Master File Table) with filesthat fit within an MFT record. An MFT record is typically 1KB in size,and every file or directory on a disk requires at least one MFT record.Small files are stored entirely within their MFT record, while filesthat don't fit within a record are allocated clusters outside the MFT.All SDelete has to do to take care of the free MFT space is allocatethe largest file it can - when the file occupies all the available spacein an MFT Record NTFS will prevent the file from getting larger, sincethere are no free clusters left on the disk (they are being held by thetwo files SDelete previously allocated). SDelete then repeats theprocess. When SDelete can no longer even create a new file, it knowsthat all the previously free records in the MFT have been completelyfilled with securely overwritten files.


To overwrite file names of a file that you delete, SDelete renames thefile 26 times, each time replacing each character of the file's namewith a successive alphabetic character. For instance, the first renameof "foo.txt" would be to "AAA.AAA".


The reason that SDelete does not securely delete file names whencleaning disk free space is that deleting them would require directmanipulation of directory structures. Directory structures can have freespace containing deleted file names, but the free directory space is notavailable for allocation to other files. Hence, SDelete has no way ofallocating this free space so that it can securely overwrite it.


Zotero can optionally synchronize your data across devices, keeping your files, notes, and bibliographic records seamlessly up to date. If you decide to sync, you can also always access your research from any web browser.


The effects of the NEF Codec are not reflected when NEF (RAW) images are displayed in the Microsoft Photos application supplied with Windows 8.1 and later.Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Live Photo Gallery, Windows Photo Viewer, and other applications that use the Nikon NEF Codec to display pictures will show the previews embedded in the NEF (RAW) files.


The gsutil cp command allows you to copy data between your local filesystem and the cloud, within the cloud, and betweencloud storage providers. For example, to upload all text files from thelocal directory to a bucket, you can run:


When you perform recursive directory copies, object names are constructed tomirror the source directory structure starting at the point of recursiveprocessing. For example, if dir1/dir2 contains the file a/b/c, then thefollowing command creates the object gs://my-bucket/dir2/a/b/c:


In contrast, copying individually-named files results in objects named bythe final path component of the source files. For example, assuming again thatdir1/dir2 contains a/b/c, the following command creates the objectgs://my-bucket/c:


The same rules apply for uploads and downloads: recursive copies of buckets andbucket subdirectories produce a mirrored filename structure, while copyingindividually or wildcard-named objects produce flatly-named files.


This causes dir and all of its files and nested subdirectories to becopied under the specified destination, resulting in objects with names likegs://my-bucket/data/dir/a/b/c. Similarly, you can download from bucketsubdirectories using the following command:


Copying subdirectories is useful if you want to add data to an existingbucket directory structure over time. It's also useful if you wantto parallelize uploads and downloads across multiple machines (potentiallyreducing overall transfer time compared with running gsutil -mcp on one machine). For example, if your bucket contains this structure:


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