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Albert Mikhailov
Albert Mikhailov

100 Country Houses New Rural Architecture

This richly illustrated volume showcases the best of contemporary rural residential architecture from the world's most innovative architects. The homes featured in "100 Country Houses: New Rural Architecture" range from traditional to experimental, exemplifying a recent shift from the conventional country vernacular towards ultra-modern, forward-thinking and eco-friendly designs. In many cases, less-restrictive planning regulations in remote areas allow architects to push boundaries and flex their creative muscle, resulting in architectural creations of astonishing scope and vision.The new rural architectural consciousness often draws heavily from, or seeks to complement, a house's surrounding landscape in terms of form, colour, texture and materials. Many architects devise or utilise progressive design techniques to immerse homeowners in their environment - whether pastoral, woodland, wetland, mountaintop or vineyard. Architects working on remote projects often find themselves dealing with extremely challenging building sites and environments: steep slopes, fierce winds, harsh sun and rocky ground.Unique advances in design, both structural and aesthetic, can occur when finding solutions for such challenges. Stunning full-colour interior and exterior photographs are complemented by detailed plans, elevations, and project descriptions providing rare insight into the extraordinary talent of these world-class architects.

100 Country Houses New Rural Architecture

American Georgian architecture is based on earlier European styles (not the British Georgian style of the same period), which emphasized classical Greek and Roman shapes. Georgian houses could be found in every part of the colonies in the 18th century.

Americans, newly enamored with Greek democracy, built civic buildings that looked like Greek temples. The fashion for columns and pediments seeped into residential architecture as far as the most rural farmland, popularized through pattern books by Asher Benjamin and Minard Lafever.

Again modeled after a fashion started in England, the Italianate style rejected the rigid rules of classical architecture and instead looked to the more informal look of Italian rural houses. Ironically, the style became very popular as an urban townhouse.

American soldiers serving in France during World War I would have seen many houses with these characteristics in the French countryside. Like the Tudor Revival, which it resembles, the style was most popular in the growing suburbs of the 1920s.

The Panama-California Exposition in San Diego in 1915 featured the California pavilion, a building with details borrowed from Spanish, Mission, and Italian architecture. The style was to the Southwest and Florida what the Colonial Revival and Tudor were to the Northeast and Midwest: an incredibly popular style that filled out the suburbs in the years after World War I.

Pueblo Revival houses have their roots in adobe houses built by Native Americans and Spanish colonial settlers in the Southwest. The style prevails in that part of the country, particularly in Arizona and New Mexico where originals survive. This house in Tucson was the subject of a This Old House TV renovation.

29. To support our collective ambition to recover together, recover stronger, we commit to well-calibrated, well-planned, and well-communicated policies to support sustainable recovery, with due consideration to country-specific circumstances. We commit to mitigate scarring effects to support strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth. We will stay agile and flexible in our fiscal policy response, standing ready to adjust to the changing circumstances as needed. Temporary and targeted measures to help sustain the purchasing power of the most vulnerable and cushion the impact of commodity price increases, including energy and food prices, should be well designed to avoid adding to high inflationary pressures. We will continue to enhance macro policy cooperation, preserve financial stability and long-term fiscal sustainability, and safeguard against downside risks and negative spillovers. Macroprudential policies need to remain vigilant to guard against rising systemic risks as financial conditions tighten. Recognizing that many currencies have moved significantly this year with increased volatility, we reaffirm the commitments made on exchange rates by our Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in April 2021. We also reiterate the importance of global cooperation and express our appreciation to the Indonesian G20 Presidency for its efforts to maintain an effective system of multilateralism through the G20.

30. G20 central banks are strongly committed to achieving price stability, in line with their respective mandates. To that end, they are closely monitoring the impact of price pressures on inflation expectations and will continue to appropriately calibrate the pace of monetary policy tightening in a data-dependent and clearly communicated manner, ensuring that inflation expectations remain well anchored, while being mindful to safeguard the recovery and limit cross-country spillovers. Central bank independence is crucial to achieving these goals and buttressing monetary policy credibility.

38. We recognize the importance of revitalizing infrastructure investment in a sustainable, inclusive, accessible, and affordable way. We endorse the voluntary and non-binding G20/GI Hub Framework on How to Best Leverage Private Sector Participation to Scale Up Sustainable Infrastructure Investment which will consider country circumstances, and which will complement investment from other sources, including public investment and finance provided by MDBs. We note the Outcome Document from the 2022 G20 Infrastructure Investors Dialogue. To enhance social inclusion and address subnational disparities, we endorse the G20-OECD Policy Toolkit on Mobilizing Funding and Financing for Inclusive and Quality Infrastructure Investment in Regions and Cities, prepared with the support of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). We note the Preliminary Findings Report on Gender Inclusive Approaches in Private Participation in Infrastructure in promoting gender considerations during the infrastructure lifecycle and look forward to the final report. We endorse the InfraTracker 2.0 which will enable both the public and private sectors towards transformative infrastructure investment post-COVID-19, by providing insights into long-term infrastructure strategies and plans. To narrow the digital divide, we endorse the G20 Compendium of Case Studies on Digital Infrastructure Finance: Issues, Practices and Innovations. We endorse the Quality Infrastructure Investment (QII) Indicators and associated guidance note, developed for the G20, which are voluntary and non-binding and consider country circumstances, and we look forward to further discussions on how the QII indicators can be applied. We welcome progress made towards developing a possible new governance model for the Global Infrastructure Hub (GI Hub) and ask that principles to guide the process be finalized as soon as possible.

We'll be in touch with the latest information on how President Biden and his administration are working for the American people, as well as ways you can get involved and help our country build back better.

Indian architecture is rooted in the history, culture, and religion of India. Among several architectural styles and traditions, the best-known include the many varieties of Hindu temple architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture, especially Rajput architecture, Mughal architecture, South Indian architecture and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Early Indian architecture was made from wood, which did not survive due to rotting and instability in the structures. Instead, the earliest existing architectures are made with Indian rock-cut architecture, including many Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain temples.

Hindu temple architecture is divided into the Dravidian style of southern India and the Nagara style of northern India, with other regional styles. Housing styles also vary between regions, depending on climate.

The first major Islamic kingdom in India was the Delhi sultanate, which led to the development of Indo-Islamic architecture, combining Indian and Islamic features. The rule of the Mughal Empire, when Mughal architecture evolved, is regarded as the zenith of Indo-Islamic architecture, with the Taj Mahal being the high point of their contribution. Indo-Islamic architecture influenced the Rajput and Sikh styles as well.

During the British colonial period, European styles including Neoclassical, Gothic Revival, and Baroque became prevalent across India. The amalgamation of Indo-Islamic and European styles led to a new style, known as the Indo-Saracenic style. After India's independence, modernist ideas spread among Indian architects as a way of progressing from the colonial culture. Le Corbusier - who designed the city of Chandigarh - influenced a generation of architects towards modernism in the 20th century. The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy. Traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in India's architecture in the contemporary era.[1]

The unearthed antiquities (of art, architecture, customs, and rituals) indicate that the prehistoric people of the Burzahom established contact with Central Asia and South West Asia, and had links to the Gangetic plains and peninsular India.

After the Indus Valley Civilization, there are few traces of Indian architecture, which probably mostly used wood, or brick which has been recycled, until around the time of the Maurya Empire, from 322 to 185 BCE. From this period for several centuries onwards, much the best remains are of Indian rock-cut architecture, mostly Buddhist, and there are also a number of Buddhist images that give very useful information.

Walled and moated cities with large gates and multi-storied buildings which consistently used chaitya arches, no doubt in wood, for roofs and upper structures above more solid storeys are important features of the architecture during this period. The reliefs of Sanchi, dated to the 1st centuries BCE-CE, show cities such as Kushinagar or Rajagriha as splendid walled cities, as in the Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha or War over the Buddha's relics. These views of ancient Indian cities have been relied on for the understanding of ancient Indian urban architecture.[8] 041b061a72


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